Nidaamka Deyn Cafinta Soomaaliya

Beryahan waxaan ku mashquulsannaa, oo aan baaraayay dowrka IMF iyo World Bank ee ku aaddan deyn cafinta Somalia. Intii aan ku gudajiray akhriska qoraallada IMF ay ka soosaartay barnaamijka deyn cafiska (SMPs), waxaan isweyddiinaayey saddexdan su’aallood: Halkee ayuu marayaa hannaanka deyn cafinta Somalia? Maxay tahay shuruudaha ku xiran? Waqti intee la eg ayuu qaadan karaa deyn cafiska? Weyddiimooyinkaasi waa kuwa muhiim u ah qofka raba in uu wax badan kala socdo qorshaha deyn cafinta Somalia.

Arrinka deyn cafinta waa mid dib ugu laabanaysa sanadkii 2013, markii maraykanku uu aqoonsaday dowladnimada Somalia. Isla sanadkaas, IMF iyo World Bank waxay dibu-sooceliyeen xiriirka shaqo ee Somalia, waana bar bilowga qorshaha deyn cafinta.

Barnaamijka deyn cafinta IMF ay ugu talaggashay in Somalia fuliso si ay u soo gaarto bar dhammaadka (point of completion), taas oo ugu dambayn u suurtagalinaysa in ay ka mid noqon karto waddamada faqriga ah ee aan iska bixin karin deymaha (HIPC Initiative). Laakiin waxaa ka horreeya in Somalia ay isbeddel weyn ka samayso dhaqaalaha, maaliyadda, maamulka iyo bulshada.

Maqaalkan kooban waxaan diiradda ku saarayaa hab-u-socodka deyn cafinta Somalia:

BARNAAMIJKA (SMPs)

Barnaamijkan wuxuu soo bilowday bisha May 2016, wuuna soconayaa ilaa inta laga gaarayo Julaay 2020, oo ku eg soo gebagebaynta wejigiisa afaraad. Wuxuu barnaamijkani dhiirrigelinayaa in isbeddello lagu sameeyo baanka dhexe ee Somalia, maamulidda iyo la socodka lacagaha moobilka la iskugu diro, ka hortagga lacagaha faalsada iyo fangareenta Alshabaab. Intaas waxaa u sii dheer, in Somalia ay ka kaalmeyso joogteynta xasilinta iyo dibu-dhiska hay’adaha dhaqaalaha.

Somalia ilaa iyo hadda waxay ku guulaysatay in ay ka soo gudubto dibu-hubinta IMF, ee ku aaddan barnaamijka deyn cafinta heerkiisa koowaad, labaad iyo saddexaad; waxaana hadda u socda hirgelinta heerka afaraad oo ah kan ugu dambeeya. Laakiin tani macnaheedu kama dhigna in Somalia laga cafiyey deyntii, waana arrin laga rabo in dowladda Somalia ay si fiican ugu bayaaniso dadkeeda in deyn cafintu waqti qaadanayso, ayna ka horreeyaan isbeddello xanuun badan oo gilgili doona dhaqaalaha iyo maamulka dowladnimo iyada oo loo marayo hirgelinta barnaamijyada deyn cafinta IMF (sida SMPs, UPT iyo PRSP).

Hirgelinta barnaamijka deyn cafinta waxaa ku xiran 18 shuruudood oo looga fadhiyo in dowladda Somalia ay tixgeliso, waxaa ka mida: In mushaharka ciidanka qaranka akoon lagu bixiyo, in la dejiyo qorshaha yareenta saboolnimada (Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper-PRSP), in dakhliga gudaha la kordhiyo iyo in la wada qaybsado khayraadka dalka. Marka la eego warbixinada IMF ay ka qortay barnaamijka deyn cafinta gaar ahaan wejigiisa koowaad, labaad iyo saddexaad; Somalia waxay muujisay sarre u kac dhanka dakhliga gudaha ah, oo sanadkii 2018 gaaray 161 milyan oo doollar. Sidoo kale, dhaqaalaha dalka wuxuu kobcay boqolkiiba 3.1.

Iyada oo guulahaasi jiraan, haddana Somalia maanta awood uma laha in ay iska bixiso 4.6 bilyan oo deyn dibadda ah oo dusha u saaran. Deyntaas bilyanka doollar ah waxaa ku leh 27 isugu jira dalal iyo hay’ado, laakiin deynta ugu badan waxaa amaahiyay kooxda Paris club iyo Maraykanka, wadarta deymahooda wuxuu gaarayaa 3.5 bilyan oo doollar.

Deyn cafinta Somalia ma dhowa, waayo marka IMF ay ka hubiso dowladda Somalia in si sax ah ay u hirgelisay barnaamijka deyn cafinta gaar ahaan wejigiisa afaraad iyo 18-kii shuruudood, Somalia waxay u gudbi doontaa marxaladda labaad oo looga fadhiyo in ay ka guul gaarto barnaamijka “Upper Credit Tranche” (UCT). Barnaamijkani wuxuu dowladda Somalia ka caawinayaa in deyn cusub ay ka amaahan karto IMF, laakiin waxaa shardi ah in kis kis (in yar in yar) loo siiyo deynta.

Iskusoowadadduub, hannaanka deyn cafiska Somalia waxaa loo marayaa hirgelinta afarta barnaamij deyn cafin oo loo yaqaano “SMPs,” oo lagu daray barnaamijka UCT iyo kulanka gebagebaynta, kaas oo isugu imaan doona madaxda IMF, dalalka iyo hay’adaha deymaha ku leh Somalia. Go’aankii ka soo baxaa ayay ku xiran tahay deyn cafinta Somalia.

Markaad akhriso barnaamijyada deyn cafiska IMF waxaa kaaga soo bixi doona in Somalia ay waqti dheer ku qaadanayso kasbashada deyn cafinta.

Hassan Mudane; Lafogure Arrimaha Afrika

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