Hab-u-Socodka Doorashooyinka Soomaaliya

Bishii Juun 2019, ee ina dhaaftay ayaa waxaan ka qaybgalay koorso ku saabsanayd doorashooyinka caalamiga. Bare Sare Jeff F, oo ah macallinkii inoo dhigaayey  casharada doorashooyinka ayaa wuxuu dhowr jeer na weyddiiyay su’aallooyin la xiriira doorashooyinka Somalia. Shakhsiyan, way igu adkaatay in aan wax badan ka jawaab-celiyo, waxaana u saabab ahaa aniga oo aan xog badan ka hayn nidaamka doorasho, codeynta iyo qaab-hawleedka guddiga doorashooyinka qaranka.

Si taasi aan meesha uga saaro ayaa toddobaadkii la soo dhaafay waxaan akhris badan ku sameeyay nidaamka doorasho ee dalka, dowrka nidaamka xisbiyada badan iyo moodeelka “Centripetal power-sharing model” ee awood-qaybsiga. Intii aan akhriska waday, waxaan ku dul kufay qoraallo badan oo laga sameeyay dowrka togan ee doorashooyinku ku leeyihiin nabadaynta iyo dibu-dhiska qaran-burburay. Culummada wax ka qoray waxaa ka mida Ben Reilly, Andrew Reynolds, Arend Lijphart, Horowitz iwm. Intooda badan waxay isku hawleen raadinta nooca nidaam doorasho ee ku habboon bulshada qabaa’ilka ah, ee ka soo bogsanaysa colaadaha sokeeye.

Si la mida, anigana maqaalkan waxaan diiradda ku saarayaa sahminta nidaamka doorasho, codeyn iyo awood-qaybsiga ku habboon Somalia. Qaybta koowaad, waxaan kaga hadli doonaa nidaamyada doorasho iyaga oo faahfaahsan. Qaybta labaad, waxaan ku lafoguri doonaa moodalada kaladduwan ee awood-qaybsiga gaar ahaa kuwa ku habboon Somalia.

NIDAAMYADA DOORASHO: Sida uu qabo Reynolds (2005), waxaa jira dhowr nidaam doorashooyin laakiin waxaa ugu caansan ama loogu isticmaalka badan yahay saddexdan qaybood, oo kala ah:

  1. Nidaamka aqlabiyadda (Plurality)
  2. Nidaamka Metelaadda (Proportional)
  3. Nidaamka iskudhafka (Mixed)

Qaybaha ugu muhiimsan ee uu ka kooban yahay nidaamyada doorasho, waxaa ka mida qaaciddada doorashada (Tus. Cod-dheerida, metelaadda iyo iskudhafidda), haykalka codeynta (U codeynta xisbiyada ama u codeynta musharaxiinta; hal doorasho ama doorashooyin badan) iyo tiro deegaanaydka (Halkii degmo hal xildhibaan-SMD mise degmadii ba laba ama saddex xildhibaan-MMD).

Saddexdaas nidaam doorasho ee kor ku xusan waxaa hoos yimaada sagaal nidaam doorasho hoosaadyo, kuwaas oo kala ah: First Past the Post, Block Vote, Alternative Vote, Party Block Vote and the Two-Round System, Parallel, Mixed Member Proportional, List Proportional Representational iyo Single-transferable vote. Intaas waxaa soo raaca kuwa kale balse ku xareysan qaannad kale. (Menocal, n.d).

Astaamaha Nidaamka Aqlabiyadda: Nidaamkani wuxuu ku dhaqmaa qaaciddada hal dheerida ah. Yacni musharaxiii ugu cod badan ayaa ku guulaysanaya kursiga degmada. Wuxuu kaloo caan ku yahay “Single-Member District” oo macnaheedu yahay in degmadii ba hal qof uu ka soo baxo. Waa nidaamka ugu badan ee la isticmaalo, iyada oo sidaas ah haddana kuma habboona bulshada dhaqan iyo isir ahaan ba kala qaybsan ee qabaa’ilka ah. Anigu, marnaba kuma taliyeen in Somalia qaadato nidaamkan doorasho waayo wuxuu lumin karaa kalsoonida beelaha laga tiro badan yahay iyo in uu is-horistaago xuquuqdooda metelaadda siyaasiga ah.

Astaamaha Nidaamka Metelaadda: Kani wuu ka duwan yahay midka hal dheerida ah. Wuxuu caan ku yahay in xisbi walba saamigiisa codeed uu baarlamaanka tiro kuraas ah kaga helo, isaga oo isticmaalaya soo bandhigidda liiska musharaxiintiisa. Waa liis noqon kara mid xiran iyo mid furan (closed and open lists). Nidaamkani wuxuu fursad ka qaybgalineed siinayaa bulshada qaybaheeda kaladduwan gaar ahaan dumarka, laakiin waa metelaad ku xiran in nidaamka codeyntu noqdo mid furan. Marka uu furan yahay ayaa u roon dumarka iyo dabaqad walba oo rabta in ay ka qaybgasho awood-qaybsiga dalka.

Somalia waxay dooratay nidaamka doorasho ee ku dhisan metelaadda listada (LIST-PR) gaar ahaan qaybtiisa codeynta ee listada xiran (PR-Closed lists).

Kan dambe aad baan uga dayrinayaa waayo waa nidaam ay ku sii dulmanaan karaan bulshada qaybteeda laga awood roon yahay, kaba sii darane wuxuu caqabad ku noqonayaa islaxisaabtanka cod-bixiyaasha (Electoral Accountability), waana mid u nugul musuqmaasuq, eex iyo masuuliyad-darro. Marka ay timaaddo musuqa, qofka xildhibaanka ah (ee doorashada ku yimid) kama cabsanayo islaxisaabtanka laba qolo: xisbiyada mucaaradka iyo cod-bixiyaasha. Maxaayeelay nidaamkan wuxuu awoodda la xisaabtanka siinaya xisbiyada, taas oo ugu dambayn keenaysa in qofka la doortay uu ka cabsado hoggaanka sare ee xisbiga intii uu ka welweli lahaa dadkii soo doortay.

Taasi waa dibu-dhac weyn, si looga hortagona waxaan soojeedinayaa in laga guuro nidaamka listada xiran, taa beddelkeeda la qaato nidaamka listada furan, iyada oo la tixgelinayo nidaamka codeynta ee kala xulashada (Preferential voting system), si gaar ahaaneed labada nidaam codeyn ee kala ah: Single-Transferable Vote iyo Alternative Vote. Labaduba waxay awood kala doorasho iyo islaxisaabtan siinayaan cod-bixiyaasha. Qofka musharaxa ee kursi-doonka ah wuxuu ku qasbanaan doonaa in uu cod badan ka dhex raadsado dhammaan beelaha degmo wadaaga ah intii uu isku halayn lahaa keli codka jufadiisa. Sidoo kale, xisbiyada ku loollamaya kursiga degmada iyagana waxay soo xulan doonaan musharaxa kasban kara codadka dhammaan beelaha degmo wadaaga ah.

Marka laga soo tego doorashada baarlamaaniga ah, tan madaxtinnimada dalka iyadana waxaan soojeedinayaa in laga dhigo doorasho dadweyne, weliba la tixgeliyo qaab codeynta loo yaqaano Alternative Vote, oo ah mid musharaxiinta ku qasbaya in tiro cayiman oo codad ah ay ka haystaan maamul-gobolleedyada dalka. (Fiiri habka codeynta ee doorashada madaxweynaha dalka Nayjeeriya).

Tani wuxuu awood dheeraad ah siinayaa cod-bixiyaasha ama muwaaddinka waayo waa isaga qofka kala xulanaya musharaxiinta, wuxuu isweyddinayaa kee baa ka shaqayn kara maslaxadda guud ee beelaha aynu isla nahay isku deegaan/maamul-gobolleed? Markan oo kale, qofka musharaxa ee cod raadiska ah wuxuu ilaalinayaa, weliba ku dadaalayaa sumcaddiisa iyo masuuliyadda ka saaran deegaanka intii uu ku mashquuli lahaa iska iibinta hoggaanka sare ee xisbiga. Waayo nidaamka listada furan wuxuu awoodda islaxisaabtanka siinayaa muwaaddinka/codbixiyaasha.

NIDAAMKA AWOOD-QAYBSIGA: Maqaalka ay qortay Alina Rocha ee cinwaankiisu yahay “Why Electoral Systems Matter,” iyada oo soo xiganaysa buugga “Electoral Systems and Conflict in Divided Society” ee ay wada qoreen Ben Reilly iyo Reynolds ayaa waxaa ku xusan saddex moodeel oo awood-qaybsiyada jira ka mid ah, kuwaas oo loogu talaggalay in lagu maareeyo khilaafka siyaasiga iyo loollanka ka dhexeeya bulshooyinka hab beelleedka ku qaybsada figta sare ee awoodda dalka. Waxaan ka soo qaadanayaa laba ka mid ah, waxayna kala yihiin:

  1. Moodeelka “Consociationalism” oo ah mid lagu isticmaalo nidaamka doorasho ee metelaadda listada ah (List PR), waxaa lagu kala ilaaliyaa qowmiyadaha ku nool dalka Belgium, Switzerland iyo South Africa.
  2. Moodeelka “Centripetalism,” isagana waa mid lagu isticmaalo nidaamka codeynta ee Alternative Vote ka, kaas oo hoos yimaada nidaamka doorasho ee aqlabiyadda. Dalalka adeegsada waxaa ka mida Papua New Guinea iyo Fiji.

Awood-qaybsiga 4.5 ta: Wixii ka dambeeyay markii uu gumeysigu ka tegay Somalia, moodeelka awood-qaybsiga dalku wuxuu ku bees gareysnaa qaaciddada 4.5 ta oo ah nidaam awood-qaybsi, kaas oo Soomaalidu ku kala qaybsato awoodaha sare ee dalka. Waa nidaam hagraya beelaha darafyada, xuquuqdooda metelaadda siyaasigana duudsiinaya; si kale u dhig, beelaha laga tun roon yahay, dumarka, cuuryaaannada iyo dhallinyarada. Wuxuu na liddi ku yahay horusocodka dimuqoraaddiyadda Somalia.

Haddaba, si nidamkani meesha looga saaro waxaan soojeedinayaa in la tijaabiyo nidaamka “Centripetalism.” Waa nidaam ku dhisan awood-qaybsi dhiirrigelinaya in musharaxiinta kala metela danaha beelaha Soomaaliyeed ay si siman ugu wada loollamaan kuraasta degmooyinka. Wuxuu musharaxa ama siyaasiga xukun-doonka ah ku qasbayaa in uu iska gado dhammaan beelaha Soomaalida ama beelaha wada dega degmada uu markaasi kursiga ka rabo. Sidoo kale, wuxuu abuuri karaa wadashaqayn dhex mara siyaasiyiinta dalka, waana wax u fiican nabadaynta iyo dibu-dhiska Somalia.

WQ: Hassan Mudane

Lafogure Arrimaha Afrika

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